Vol 4, No 2 (2023)


The paradoxical moderating effects of metacognition in the relationships between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in anorexia and bulimia

Springfield C.R., Bonfils K.A., Chernov N.V., Moiseeva T.V., Sozinova M.V., Dmitryeva N.G., Lysaker P.H., Karpenko O.A., Kostyuk G.P.


BACKGROUND: Self-esteem and depressive symptoms contribute to a lower quality of life in people suffering from eating disorders. However, limited research has examined whether other factors may affect how these variables influence one another over time. Metacognition is a previously unexplored determinant that may impact the relationships between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in instances of eating disorders.

AIM: This study sought to examine metacognitive self-reflectivity and mastery as moderators of the relationships between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and quality of life and to determine if these relationships are different in people with anorexia compared with people with bulimia.

METHODS: Participants with anorexia (n=40) and bulimia (n=40) were recruited from outpatient clinics. The participants were assessed on their metacognitive ability and self-reported on measures to assess their depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and quality of life.

RESULTS: The results indicate that metacognitive self-reflectivity moderates the relationship between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in people with anorexia such that when self-reflectivity is high, lower self-esteem and higher depressive symptoms are associated with a lower quality of life. These relationships did not appear to be significant when self-reflectivity was low. In contrast, in the anorexia and bulimia groups, metacognitive mastery appeared to moderate the relationships between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and quality of life such that when mastery was low, lower self-esteem and higher depressive symptoms were associated with a lower quality of life. These relationships did not appear significant when mastery was high.

CONCLUSION: Metacognitive self-reflectivity and mastery seem to play paradoxical moderating roles in the relationships between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in people with anorexia and bulimia. These findings pave the way toward further research and have important clinical implications.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):6-20
pages 6-20 views

Risk factors of disordered eating in adolescent girls from a community sample: a multidimensional approach

Meshkova T.A., Mitina O.V., Aleksandrova R.V.


BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (ED) are severe, chronic, and complex in nature mental illnesses that are difficult to treat. One of the ways to stave off EDs is by screening among adolescents to preempt the development of clinical forms of ED in risk groups.

AIM: 1) to investigate the prevalence of ED risk among adolescent girls and compare subgroups at high and low risk of ED; 2) to investigate using a multidimensional approach those variables that can interact with temperament and character traits to predict ED symptomatology.

METHODS: The cross-sectional observational self-report study of a community sample of adolescent girls 12–17 years old (n=298; M=14.77±1.13) was carried out in the city of Ryazan, Russia. The Russian versions of Eating Attitudes Test and Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised were used. In addition, an original questionnaire (Risk Factors of Eating Disorders) was developed. Regression models (to test for significant moderation) and path analysis (to test for significant mediations) were used.

RESULTS: Girls at risk of developing EDs are characterized by a heightened level of concern about weight and dissatisfaction with their body, tend to suffer from low self-directedness, higher novelty seeking and tendency to higher harm avoidance, display high alexithymia, experience self-distrust, negative emotionality and are dissatisfied with family relationships. They also suffer from low self-esteem and tend to be perfectionism and engage in risk behavior. Significant moderating effects were uncovered between the following ED risk factors: (1) self-distrust/risk behavior and BMI; (2) alexithymia/negative emotionality/self-esteem and cooperativeness; and (3) negative emotionality/risk behavior and self-transcendence. Family relationship dissatisfaction mediates the association between self-directedness/cooperativeness/self-transcendence and disordered eating.

CONCLUSION: There are various mutual influences between the numerous ED risk and prevention factors, which all together determine the paths between the predictors and final outcome.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):21-39
pages 21-39 views

Anorexia nervosa through the lens of primary health care practitioners in the Kyrgyz Republic

Moldokulova Z., Molchanova E.S., Kosterina E.V.


BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa was investigated in a large number of studies. Several of the studies in our review highlighted how important it is to factor in the opinion of health care practitioners if we want to improve the quality of the medical care provided to patients with anorexia nervosa. Additionally, the dominance of studies focused on anorexia nervosa within the Western culture raised the need for cultural diversity in such research.

AIM: The present study endeavored to explore how primary healthcare practitioners in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, perceive anorexia nervosa and people who suffer from it.

METHODS: The study used the qualitative approach of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Six semi-structured interviews with six primary health care practitioners from Bishkek were conducted.

RESULTS: The analysis of the collected data pointed towards four themes: (1) Anorexia nervosa as a reaction to distressing events in the form of loss of appetite; (2) Attributing blame for developing anorexia nervosa by a patient to family members; (3) Local versus Western socio-cultural standards in the development of anorexia nervosa and seeking treatment; and (4) Denial of mental health disorders by patients.

CONCLUSION: The discussion of the interpreted results led us to the conclusion that the perceptions of the health care providers in Bishkek represent the common prism through which anorexia nervosa is viewed in the larger population, which is constructed out of information received from the physical and virtual environments.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):41-52
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Factors associated with lifetime history of eating disorder in non-psychotic patients with suicidal ideation

Kustov G.V., Zinchuk M.S., Popova S.B., Mishin I.N., Voinova N.I., Yakovlev A.A., Akzhigitov R.G.


BACKGROUND: Data on the sociodemographic, biographical, and clinical factors associated with a lifetime diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) in patients with non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD) and suicidal ideation (SI) are scarce.

METHODS: A cohort study was conducted at the Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry. The sample consisted of consecutive patients with non-psychotic mental disorders and SI, aged 18–45 years. Participants with a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia and/or bulimia (then in remission or recovery) were compared with those without ED in terms of their sociodemographic profile, clinical characteristics, lifetime traumatic events, and some behavioral patterns. All participants underwent the Russian version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview and completed the Brief Reasons for Living Inventory, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory.

RESULTS: A total of 892 patients with non-psychotic mental disorders and SI were included in the study. The mean age was 25.7 years, and 84% were assigned female at birth. Same-sex experience was more common in the ED group. Patients with an ED were more likely to have a history of physical and sexual abuse and to have witnessed domestic violence. The proportion of participants with piercings, tattoos, or severe body modifications was significantly higher in the ED group. Patients with a lifetime ED were more likely to engage in nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviors and to have a history of suicide attempts.

CONCLUSION: Lifetime ED in NPMD patients with SI is associated with younger age, being assigned female at birth, having an alternative gender identity, having same-sex experience, having more than one psychiatric diagnosis, having been diagnosed with bipolar disorder, experiencing severe depression and anxiety, being exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, having various body modifications, practicing NSSI, and having a lifetime story of suicide attempts.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):53-63
pages 53-63 views

Non-suicidal self-injuries and suicide risk in adolescent girls with eating disorders: associations with weight control, body mass index, and interpersonal sensitivity

Polskaya N.A., Basova A.Y., Razvaliaeva A.Y., Yakubovskaya D.K., Vlasova N.V., Abramova A.A.


BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs) are associated with a risk of premature death, as well as suicidal and self-injurious behavior. A low or high body mass index (BMI) and weight control behavior can also have an impact on self-injurious and suicidal behavior. While some studies show that interpersonal sensitivity is a risk factor for EDs, affective disorders, and self-injurious behavior, in-depth studies of these issues have not been done.

AIM: The present study investigates how self-injurious and suicidal behavior relate to weight control behavior, BMI, and interpersonal sensitivity in adolescent girls from a clinical population with diagnosed EDs compared with adolescent girls from the general population.

METHODS: The main group was comprised of 31 girls with a diagnosis of ED (as the main diagnosis or co-occurring with affective disorders, M=15±1.13 years), being treated in in the Eating Disorder Clinic of the Scientific and Practical Center for Mental Health of Children and Adolescents named after G.E. Sukhareva. The comparison group consisted of 27 adolescent girls recruited from Proton Educational Center (M=15.51±1.09 years). The measures included a qualitative survey that yielded data on weight control behavior, and self-injurious behavior, a Blitz questionnaire probing the suicide risk (used only in the main group), and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure. Height and weight data were also recorded for BMI calculation.

RESULTS: The qualitative analysis of weight control behavior yielded the following results: purging behavior, restrictive behavior, and corrective behavior. Participants in the main group used purging and restrictive behavior more often, whereas participants in the comparison group used strategies associated with a healthy lifestyle. The main group and participants who practiced purging and restrictive weight control in the overall sample had the smallest BMI. Self-injurious behavior was approximately evenly distributed both amongst the main and comparison groups. Self-cutting was the most prevalent type of self-injury. In the main group, self-injury was associated with a smaller BMI, while in the comparison group it was associated with an increase in the fear of rejection and overall interpersonal sensitivity. Based on the assessment of the suicide risk, six participants in the main group were deemed high-risk; they also displayed increased fear of rejection, dependence on the assessments of others, and overall interpersonal sensitivity. All girls in the suicide risk subgroup had non-suicidal self-injuries.

CONCLUSION: The results of our study broaden our understanding of the risk factors of suicidal and self-injurious behavior in adolescent girls with EDs and reveal the characteristics of the type of weight control behavior used by this group in comparison with adolescent girls in the general population. Girls with EDs who were considered at the risk of committing suicide demonstrated high interpersonal sensitivity, which provides a rationale for further studying the general interpersonal mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of EDs, as well as that of self-injurious and suicidal behavior.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):65-77
pages 65-77 views


Pharmacological strategies for appetite modulation in eating disorders: a narrative review

Popov M.Y., Lepik O.V., Kozlovskii V.L., Popov Y.V.


BACKGROUND: A substantial increase in the prevalence of eating disorders has been noticed over the past decades. Priority in the treatment of eating disorders is justifiably given to psychosocial interventions. However, it is also well known that centrally acting drugs can significantly affect appetite and food consumption.

AIM: To narratively review the available neurobiological data on the mechanisms of central regulation of eating behavior as a rationale to summarize pharmacological strategies for appetite modulation in eating disorders.

METHODS: The authors have carried out a narrative review of scientific papers published from January 2013 to March 2023 in the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases. Studies were considered eligible if they included data on the neurobiological mechanisms of appetite regulation or the results of clinical trials of centrally acting drugs in eating disorders. Relevant studies were included regardless of their design. Descriptive analysis was used to summarize the obtained data.

RESULTS: The review included 51 studies. The available neurobiological and clinical data allowed us to identify the following pharmacological strategies for appetite modulation in eating disorders: serotonergic, catecholaminergic, amino acidergic and peptidergic. However, implementation of these data into clinical practice difficult due to an insufficient number of good-quality studies, which is particularly relevant for adolescents as there is a research gap in this population.

CONCLUSION: The progress in neurobiological understanding of the mechanisms of central regulation of appetite opens opportunities for new pharmacotherapeutic approaches aimed at changing the patterns of eating behavior. Obviously, treatment of eating disorders is a much broader problem and cannot be reduced to the correction of eating patterns. Nevertheless, at certain stages of treatment, drug-induced modulation of appetite can play an important role among multi-targeted biological and psychosocial interventions. Translation of neurobiological data into clinical practice requires a large number of clinical studies to confirm the long-term efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapeutic approaches and to develop personalized algorithms for the treatment of various forms of eating disorders in different age groups.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):79-90
pages 79-90 views

Prevalence of eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder: a scoping review of the literature

Yakovleva Y.V., Kasyanov E.D., Mazo G.E.


BACKGROUND: Eating disorder (ED) and bipolar disorder (BD) exhibit certain phenomenological similarities rooted in eating behavior and emotional regulation. However, despite the growing body of research on the comorbidity of ED and BD, scientific data on the concurrent course of these disorders has remained poorly systematized.

AIM: To conduct a scoping review of published data on the prevalence of various types of ED among patients with BD types I and II in the context of the sex and clinical features of the concurrent course of these disorders.

METHODS: The analysis was reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. The search was conducted in the MEDLINE electronic database. Studies were included if they were focused samples of patients diagnosed with BD and ED, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth and fifth editions (DSM-IV, DSM-5), or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, tenth Revision (ICD-10), were used for the verification of the ED and BD diagnoses. The descriptive analysis method was used to summarize the review findings.

RESULTS: A total of 41 studies were selected for the review. Lifetime ED in patients with BD ranged from 2.2% to 31.1%, and the prevalence rates of BD among patients with ED varied from 11.3% to 68.1%. ED nominally had a higher prevalence among individuals with BD type II and females. Additionally, the presence of ED in patients with BD was associated with earlier onset of mood disorder, a higher number of depressive episodes, higher levels of atypical depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, as well as a higher frequency of comorbid obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders, addictions, and various metabolic disorders.

CONCLUSION: Despite the high degree of volatility in the results, the prevalence rates of a concurrent course of ED and BD are rather high. For this reason, screening for ED in patients with BD and vice versa holds significant value in the accurate diagnosis and selection of the most effective therapy. The patterns of comorbidity among different types of ED and BD, depending on gender, need further exploration in future research.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):91-106
pages 91-106 views


Possible role of nutritionists in multi-disciplinary teams managing patients with eating disorders in the Russian Federation

Kamitova A.V.


The goal of this publication was to weigh the benefits of including a nutritionist in a team of specialists managing patients with eating disorders (EDs). The article describes the professional status of nutritionists as of the first half of 2023, as well as their field of competence and limitations. The nutritionist is intended to play an auxiliary role in the team, primarily assisting the patient in following the recommendations of the attending physician(s). A nutritionist can also take preventive action by educating the population on the importance of good nutrition.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):107-110
pages 107-110 views


Pregorexia: a psychotherapy strategy for eating disorders in pregnant women

Fomicheva N.S.


Pregorexia refers to an eating disorder observed in pregnant women characterized by the adoption of extreme dieting and workout regime during pregnancy meant to ward off weight gain and keep body shape under control. Psychological factors such as a distortion of how one perceives their own body, concerns about visible signs of pregnancy, and fear of gaining weight have been identified as some of the underlying causes of pregorexia. This condition may have detrimental effects, such as stunted fetal growth, spontaneous miscarriage, and development of anemia by the pregnant woman.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):111-114
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The mental health system in Bulgaria: socialist heritage and prospects

Stoyanov D., Nakov V.


The article overviews the current system of psychiatric care in Bulgaria based on statistical data for the country. We attempted to look at the reality of the psychiatric care system in Bulgaria as regards its structural parts, the relationships between them, their resource provision, as well as its financing. Attention is focused on some practices and policies that seem inadequate to the needs of patients, their successful treatment, and successful social rehabilitation and integration. It can be said that in recent years the Bulgarian mental health care system has not changed much and that it has a long way to go. There are socio-economic difficulties in the country, and the system needs to evolve to improve the level of care provided to patients. More importantly, Bulgaria must invest in mental health education, in preventive psychiatry, and in developing a culture of clinical management and organization.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):115-124
pages 115-124 views


The History of Territorial Psychiatric Hospitals in Russia

Tselischev D.V., Chernyaev M.I.


The establishment of district psychiatric hospitals in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th-early 20th century is one of  the most important stages in the development of domestic psychiatry. In fact, it was the first experience in the design and  construction of psychiatric hospitals as large specialized autonomous complexes aimed not only at isolation of patients, but also at  therapy of their condition. The idea of building such institutions was suggested by reality itself: city houses for the mentally ill under the jurisdiction of provincial and then zemstvo authorities were overcrowded, but there was a lack of specialized doctors, since  psychiatry in Russia in the first half of the 19th century was only beginning to gain scientific prestige. In a sense, the development  of Russian psychiatry and the evolution of the project of district hospitals for the mentally ill pushed each other: leading  psychiatrists of their time took a most enthusiastic part in the development of the project, and the hospitals established through  their efforts provided enormous practical material for studying mental diseases and methods of their therapy.

Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023;4(2):125-136
pages 125-136 views

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